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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:dgjp.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)由主体、驱(qu)(qu)(qu)动(dong)系统(tong)和(he)控(kong)制(zhi)系统(tong)三个基(ji)本部(bu)分组成(cheng)。按机(ji)器人结构(gou)分类为直(zhi)角坐标型,机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)沿二维直(zhi)角坐标系移(yi)(yi)动(dong)。主体部(bu)分通(tong)常采用龙门式结构(gou),由y向横梁(liang)(liang)与导轨(gui)(gui)、z向滑(hua)枕(zhen)、十字滑(hua)座、立柱、过(guo)渡连接板和(he)基(ji)座等(deng)部(bu)分组成(cheng),z向的(de)直(zhi)线(xian)运(yun)动(dong)皆为交流(liu)伺服电动(dong)机(ji)通(tong)过(guo)蜗轮减速器驱(qu)(qu)(qu)动(dong)齿(chi)轮与y向横梁(liang)(liang)、z向滑(hua)枕(zhen)上(shang)固定的(de)齿(chi)条作滚动(dong),驱(qu)(qu)(qu)动(dong)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)部(bu)件沿导轨(gui)(gui)快速运(yun)动(dong)。移(yi)(yi)动(dong)部(bu)件为质量较轻的(de)十字滑(hua)座和(he)z向滑(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)枕(zhen)采用由铝合金拉制(zhi)的(de)型材。横梁(liang)(liang)采用方(fang)钢型材,在(zai)(zai)横梁(liang)(liang)上(shang)安装有导轨(gui)(gui)和(he)齿(chi)条,通(tong)过(guo)滚轮与导轨(gui)(gui)接触,整个机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)都(dou)悬挂在(zai)(zai)其上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输送的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)快,加速(su)度(du)大,加减(jian)速(su)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)短(duan)。当输送较重的(de)(de)(de)工件时(shi)(shi),惯(guan)量(liang)(liang)大,因此(ci),伺(si)服(fu)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)电机(ji)要(yao)有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能力,支撑元(yuan)件也(ye)要(yao)有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)及强度(du)。只有(you)这(zhei)样,才能使伺(si)服(fu)电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)满足桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输送的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)(gao)响应、高(gao)(gao)(gao)刚度(du)及高(gao)(gao)(gao)精(jing)度(du)要(yao)求(qiu)。在选(xuan)择(ze)合适(shi)伺(si)服(fu)电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)情况下(xia),根(gen)据(ju)物料运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距离和运(yun)(yun)行节(jie)拍,计(ji)算出伺(si)服(fu)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)位移和轨迹,对驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)PID参数进行动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)态调整。桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)根(gen)据(ju)接收到的(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)度(du)指(zhi)令,经变化、放大并调整处理后,传递给运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)单元(yuan),通(tong)过(guo)光(guang)纤传感器(qi)对运(yun)(yun)行状态进行实时(shi)(shi)检测,在高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)搬运(yun)(yun)过(guo)程(cheng)中,运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件在极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)内到达给定的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du),并能在高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)行程(cheng)中瞬间(jian)准(zhun)停,通(tong)过(guo)高(gao)(gao)(gao)分辩率绝对式编码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)插补(bu)运(yun)(yun)算,控(kong)制(zhi)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)误差(cha)(cha)和测量(liang)(liang)误差(cha)(cha)对运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)精(jing)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)影响。由(you)于被(bei)输送的(de)(de)(de)工件不(bu)(bu)同,质量(liang)(liang)也(ye)不(bu)(bu)同,因此(ci),桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)有(you)多种规格和系列。在选(xuan)择(ze)时(shi)(shi),根(gen)据(ju)被(bei)输送工件的(de)(de)(de)质量(liang)(liang),加工的(de)(de)(de)节(jie)拍来(lai)选(xuan)取(qu)。但机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)(shou)臂,夹持方式,则根(gen)据(ju)被(bei)输送工件的(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及机(ji)床夹具(ju)定夹方式来(lai)设计(ji)(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)能(neng)够借助可(ke)(ke)编程序来处理和执行(xing)(xing)任务。机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)主要(yao)由手(shou)图 1 臂、回转装(zhuang)(zhuang)置、运(yun)动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件(jian)及驱动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件(jian)组成。通过(guo)对工(gong)(gong)件(jian)外(wai)形(xing)或工(gong)(gong)件(jian)上(shang)定(ding)位支撑点定(ding)位夹持(chi)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)。例如,在(zai)汽(qi)车发动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)(xing)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线物流(liu)输送中,桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)会(hui)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)缸体、缸盖、曲轴等(deng)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)外(wai)形(xing)特点,选(xuan)取不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位和夹持(chi)方(fang)式。柔性(xing)(xing)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)上(shang)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)气(qi)缸和电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)进行(xing)(xing)定(ding)位和夹持(chi)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)切(qie)换(huan)驱动(dong)(dong),一套机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)可(ke)(ke)完成不同(tong)(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)搬运(yun)工(gong)(gong)作。夹持(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)可(ke)(ke)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)产品质(zhi)量和外(wai)形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小采(cai)用(yong)(yong)系列化(hua)(hua)设计,机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang)方(fang)式相(xiang)同(tong)(tong),针(zhen)对不同(tong)(tong)系列的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian),只需切(qie)换(huan)相(xiang)应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)即可(ke)(ke),满足快速切(qie)换(huan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)需要(yao)。这样,当加(jia)工(gong)(gong)不同(tong)(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian),只须变换(huan)夹持(chi)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)就可(ke)(ke)实现,提高了桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)(xing)化(hua)(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁(heng)架机械手输送装置的发展及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了刚(gang)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)两(liang)个(ge)时代。就(jiu)(jiu)目前而(er)(er)言(yan), 在国内(nei)二者(zhe)均(jun)有之。刚(gang)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)(fen)为棘轮棘爪、摆杆(gan)、抬起(qi)步(bu)(bu)伐(fa)、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)(xing)式(shi)。随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展,由(you)其(qi)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)(bu)替代组(zu)(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适(shi)(shi)应小批量多品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市场的(de)(de)(de)广(guang)泛认可(ke),并(bing)称(cheng)其(qi)为柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)(jiu)其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装置(zhi)(zhi)或(huo)(huo)(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然(ran)为刚(gang)性(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)。当(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又有了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)(xing)式(shi)以(yi)刚(gang)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou))并(bing)存,或(huo)(huo)(huo)纯(chun)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)全部由(you)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成,这(zhei)是真正的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)配以(yi)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又称(cheng)之为敏捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是敏捷(jie)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)重要组(zu)(zu)(zu)成部分(fen)(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距可(ke)根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)(zhi)随意(yi)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)(bian)(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)安装位置(zhi)(zhi)不再象刚(gang)性(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按(an)照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距或(huo)(huo)(huo)步(bu)(bu)距倍数(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)要求进(jin)行严格的(de)(de)(de)安装,且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也可(ke)根据生(sheng)产节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)距离而(er)(er)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)(bian)(bian)。而(er)(er)真正体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)重要一(yi)(yi)面(mian)是,当(dang)被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)产品改(gai)(gai)变(bian)(bian)(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部分(fen)(fen)(fen)不会不适(shi)(shi)应而(er)(er)全部更换,只(zhi)要改(gai)(gai)变(bian)(bian)(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)局部结构即可(ke)。采(cai)用桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更先(xian)进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)面(mian)是,机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整(zheng)体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能(neng)化的(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)一(yi)(yi)。因此,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)才在当(dang)今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上越来(lai)越多地(di)被采(cai)用,使整(zheng)个(ge)生(sheng)产过(guo)(guo)程通(tong)过(guo)(guo)信(xin)息(xi)流系统(tong)进(jin)行控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)(guo)程中(zhong),所需各种(zhong)信(xin)息(xi)收集、处理、反(fan)馈,并(bing)通(tong)过(guo)(guo)电子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)(huo)(huo)其(qi)他(ta)控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)装置(zhi)(zhi)(液(ye)压、气压装置(zhi)(zhi)等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)(huo)(huo)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设(she)备实行分(fen)(fen)(fen)级控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。信(xin)息(xi)流系统(tong)分(fen)(fen)(fen)为由(you)中(zhong)央管(guan)理计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)及(ji)信(xin)息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)(zu)成。目前,汽车制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)业中(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖及(ji)曲轴(zhou)等大批量关键(jian)零件的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采(cai)用了桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国内(nei)外的差(cha)距(ju)

当下(xia),我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)很(hen)快,技术水平有了(le)很(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)提(ti)高,与(yu)(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)差距(ju)变得越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)小,甚至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)相比已经(jing)没有什(shen)么差距(ju)。特(te)别(bie)是国(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)科技专项的(de)(de)开展(zhan),为我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)上(shang)(shang)档次上(shang)(shang)水平提(ti)高了(le)加(jia)(jia)速(su)度,成绩显(xian)而(er)易见(jian)。加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)这(zhei)几年发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)特(te)别(bie)快,但柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)技术水平和(he)(he)档次,较(jiao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)差距(ju)还很(hen)明(ming)显(xian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)采用(yong)(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)较(jiao)为普遍,而(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)却(que)为数不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)庞(pang)大(da)的(de)(de)汽车(che)生(sheng)(sheng)产市场所采用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)带桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口。如无锡柴油发(fa)(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)缸体(ti)缸盖柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)由(you)德(de)国(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包,由(you)BZ800加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)(xian)检具、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及(ji)珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成。输送(song)(song)(song)采用(yong)(yong)空中(zhong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)输送(song)(song)(song)。仅以汽车(che)制造业而(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)产的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),采用(yong)(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)屈指可数。大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)和(he)(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)等生(sheng)(sheng)产出了(le)该方面的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),并(bing)在生(sheng)(sheng)产实际中(zhong)得到了(le)应用(yong)(yong)。图4是大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)生(sheng)(sheng)产的(de)(de)DKX017缸体(ti)加(jia)(jia)工柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工两种缸体(ti),分别(bie)为四缸和(he)(he)六(liu)缸,其(qi)输送(song)(song)(song)采用(yong)(yong)空中(zhong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)和(he)(he)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)两端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形式。桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)两个,一个上(shang)(shang)料(liao),一个下(xia)料(liao)。它的(de)(de)成功,标(biao)志着(zhe)我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产由(you)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)际水准(zhun)迈进(jin)。

上(shang)述提及的(de)(de)(de)(de)只是数(shu)量上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)比较,其实真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)原因还是国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)水平与国(guo)(guo)外有(you)(you)着一定的(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)。柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工自动线(xian)(xian)采(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手,也是从(cong)国(guo)(guo)外进(jin)口的(de)(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手。那时,国(guo)(guo)内(nei)还没有(you)(you)专(zhuan)门生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)(de)厂家(jia)。如今,国(guo)(guo)内(nei)巨一等一些(xie)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手生产(chan)(chan)厂家(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)涌(yong)出(chu),为(wei)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工自动线(xian)(xian)带来(lai)了希望,进(jin)而缩小了与国(guo)(guo)外在(zai)生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手方(fang)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju),国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手在(zai)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工自动线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)应用也越来(lai)越多,从(cong)而打(da)破国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场被(bei)外国(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)(de)(de)垄(long)断(duan)。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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